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Reflection-in-Action allows designers to act as researchers in a given context by developing new problem spaces and by adapting both ends and means. Donald Schön treated the design process as "a reflective conversation" with existing situations which (as Herbert Simon had proposed in The Sciences of the Artificial) ought to be changed into preferred ones. The interplay between "changing things and understanding them" does not invoke a self-referential system where practitioners freely interpret the objects they actuate. A robust reflective practice would be based on appropriate move- and hypothesis-testing in order to dis-/confirm predictions and intended results.
Iterative design methods can have a generative component, where concept solutions are formulated and artefacts made, followed by an evaluative phase where outcomes are checked against goals, requirements, and criteria. The system may also warrant a redescription before the next design iteration proceeds.

MELTING THE CRYSTAL: A Design Intervention

The term 'co-creation' was used in Virtual Worlds: No Interface to design (Bricken, 1991) to describe collaboration in cyberspace between engineers, designers, and participants. John Feland’s case study (2007) of a virtual innovation team discusses how design thinking is able to "evolve concepts across [...] technical, business, and human issues." In his thesis, Martin Mauve (2000) developed a communication protocol and a synchronous VRML web application, based on his model of distributed interactive media that includes shared whiteboards, networked computer games, and virtual environments. Thomas Leerberg refers to Stankiewicz' evolutionary technology systems in his discussion of the Topos virtual design space, while Developing Future Interactive Systems (Bellman, 2005) examines a collaborative environment where embodied utilities are themselves users interacting with each other as well as humans. In their paper entitled Environments for Creativity – A Lab for Making Things (2007), Ellen Yi-Luen Do and Mark Gross propose a shared design space that is extended indefinitely by building tools, iterative prototypes and 'objects to think with'. Mary Lou Maher et al. (2006) consider computer-mediated communication in the Virtual Design Studio, emphasising the role of shared representation in successful collaborative designs. Research by Albert Esterline et al. (2006) examines the LOGOS Multi-agent System which is a sophisticated environment developed by NASA. Software agents collaborate with each other, as well as human operators, while resolving faults, retrieving database information, or paging experts for assistance.    more >

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