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The Inverter is a Conceptual Model that can be used to explore units of information (Classical Bit). It consists of a solar panel connected to a box that contains a light source and a green plant. The box is situated in a room with one window. The only real connection between the box and the room is a sensor system. There are three main Parameters: Position, State, and Certainty.
1) A conscious Agent can assume one of the following Positions: P1: Outside the Room. P2: Inside the Box. P3: Inside the Room.
2) Each position has one of two States, ON or OFF, excepting the EYE-position [P3] which is always ON/open. When the SUN is ON the LAMP is always OFF. When the SUN is OFF the LAMP is always ON.
3) When the Agent is in Position 2 it can be certain that: the EYE is ON and the LAMP is ON or OFF. When the Agent is in Position 1, AND the SUN is ON, it can be certain that: the EYE is ON and the LAMP is OFF.
4) A state machine like the Inverter can produce a number of Conditions which can be linked to Functions with various parameters in order to execute Events. more

Like energy, capital follows the path of least resistance to preserve itself or grow. If there is confidence & trust, an object without intrinsic value can attract liquidity at quasi any price. In a "liquidity white bubble" price rises produce more buyers and fewer sellers, contributing to further rises. If, however, everyone converts to cash, an object with fundamental value ends up worthless on the market. In a "liquidity black hole" price falls produce more sellers and fewer buyers, contributing to further falls. more

Given the cosmic distances a light signal must traverse, looking into space always means going back in time ... When George-Henri Lemaitre encountered the General Theory of Relativity, he concluded [unlike its author] that the universe is expanding. He also described a possible origin (soon called the 'Big Bang') in which the universe had emerged from a 'primordial atom'. The discovery of background radiation using radio telescopes supported this theory.
Observation data is usually interpreted on the basis of existing theories or models to make it more meaningful. The Big Bang model has many inconsistencies: it begins with a singularity [zero radius, infinite temperature] and makes the assertion that all matter existed at the start. According to the big-bang model, the evolution (and abundance) of the elements began with a synthesis of nuclei during the first few instants that resulted in a mass of hydrogen and helium, leading to density fluctuations and the formation of proto-stars. more