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User-centered design for the Web is informed by HCI principles, user culture, and task analysis. The interface is not only a mechanism to advance users from one state of the system to the next - allowing them to access databases, scripts, or applications - but also a presentation metaphor to develop mental models.
Wayfinding provides interactive choices for users navigating globally, locally, and contextually. The interface becomes transparent ["State of Flow"] when user interactions occur at the semantic level of the space and intellect can be applied directly to the task.
Many interfaces rely on layout grids and modular units. Information on the web may be structured sequentially - perhaps leading the user through a series of topics. It can also be organised in a hierarchy of menus, outlines, and content pages. Information architecture often revolves around existing source material, or begins with a hierarchical shell followed by content insertions. Hypertext spaces promote rapid non-sequential reading, but long documents should not be 'chunked' at the expense of context. Browsing structures provide the overview and relations among units, while searching by keyword initiates a path to locate specific data.

Given the cosmic distances a light signal must traverse, looking into space always means going back in time ... When George-Henri Lemaitre encountered the General Theory of Relativity, he concluded [unlike its author] that the universe is expanding. He also described a possible origin (soon called the 'Big Bang') in which the universe had emerged from a 'primordial atom'. The discovery of background radiation using radio telescopes supported this theory.
Observation data is usually interpreted on the basis of existing theories or models to make it more meaningful. The Big Bang model has many inconsistencies: it begins with a singularity [zero radius, infinite temperature] and makes the assertion that all matter existed at the start. According to the big-bang model, the evolution (and abundance) of the elements began with a synthesis of nuclei during the first few instants that resulted in a mass of hydrogen and helium, leading to density fluctuations and the formation of proto-stars. more

Like energy, capital follows the path of least resistance to preserve itself or grow. If there is confidence & trust, an object without intrinsic value can attract liquidity at quasi any price. In a "liquidity white bubble" price rises produce more buyers and fewer sellers, contributing to further rises. If, however, everyone converts to cash, an object with fundamental value ends up worthless on the market. In a "liquidity black hole" price falls produce more sellers and fewer buyers, contributing to further falls. more